汽车变速箱两端面液压双头组合铣床的设计.zip

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毕 业 设 计(论 文)毕 业 设 计(论 文)英英 文文 文文 献献 翻翻 译译学生姓名:林圣镇学 号:0615011106所在系部:机械工程系专业班级:06gb 机制 1指导教师:周国柱(教授)日 期:2010 年 5 月图号A1毛坯种类铸件名称汽车变速箱两端面液压双头组合铣床的设计毛坯重量15kg被加工零件材料灰铸铁硬度HT150工序名称粗铣前后端面工序号15序号工序名称被加工件数量加工长度(mm)工作行程(mm)切削速度(m/min)转速(r/min)进给量(mm/min)机动时间辅助时间共计1装卸工件10.500.502左滑台铣端面快进31063000.050.05对刀0.0100.010铣左端面4.532011046.716022快退63063000.10.13右滑台铣端面快进31063000.025对刀0.010铣右端面4.532011046.71602快退63063000.1共计2.8min单位工时2.8min机床生产率21.4 件/小时备注装卸工件时间取决于操作者的熟练程度。本机床计算时安装卸一次为 0.5min 计算。机床负荷率71%The research and development of modular machine toolThe research and development of modular machine toolThe machine is a combination of a generic components and special parts of the process of high concentrated special machine.It can be a(or more),more than parts,many,many processing.The machine can complete drilling,reaming,boring,tapping,turning,milling,grinding and rolling process,high efficiency,stable machining accuracy.Combination machine tools and other special machine tool,general,has the following features:(1)combination machine tools on the general standard of components and parts accounted for all the machine parts of 70-80%,design and manufacture of short cycle,less investment,economic effect is good.(2)the combination machine adopts many knives,and a high degree of automation,thus than general machine high production efficiency,stable product quality,low labor strength.(3)is the universal modular machine tool parts after careful design and long-term production practice,and have special test batches,therefore the stable structure,manufacture,use and maintenance work and reliable.(4)in combination machine processing parts,with special jig,tools and equipment,processing technology and equipment,the quality of on the technical level of operators.(5)when the products processed update,using other types of special machine,its most parts to discard.In general,the combination of machine parts and standard parts can be reused,without further design and manufacturing.(6)combination machine tools to represent combination machine tools,in order to adapt to the cycle of large-scale production needs.Although there are many advantages of modular machine tool,but also disadvantages:(1)the variability of modular machine tool,a universal reconfigured sometimes 10%20%of the parts cant reuse,and refitted.When large quantities(2)universal modular machine tool parts not for a certain kind of machine design,it is a relatively wide adaptability.This will make the combination machine tools,special machine is a complex structure.The classification of 1.2 combination machine toolsCombination machine tools and large portfolio is two kinds of small combination machine tools,they not only in volume and power are the size and type in structure and allocation,etc have great difference.Here,the configuration of the large combination machine tools.Large portfolio of machine configuration can be divided into three categories:1.2.1 has fixed fixture were a combination machine toolsThis kind of modular machine tool fixtures and workbench are stationary.To realize dynamic slide into motion,smooth realization of dynamic box on the cutting.According to the dynamic box and spindle box of resettlement way,and can be divided into the following kinds:(1)the horizontal combination machine tools(horizontal)power box,(2)vertical combination machine tools(power box installed vertically),(3)tilted combination machine tools(power box installed);tilted(4)complex combination machine tools(power box with the installation of two or more).Given the fixture with multistage(portable)combination machine toolsThis kind of combination machine tools installation in the jig straight moving workbench or turn on the job,and do according to certain takt time interval,make Labour movement or get conversion.This kind of machine configuration,common four.(1)with the machine moving workbench,this kind of machine can make the fixture and workpiece beeline reciprocating movement.(2)with the rotary worktable,this machine tool fixtures and workpiece axis of rotation,round vertical can turn on the work in each workstation are usually equipped with workpiece.(3)drum machine,the machine tool for fixture and workpiece axis rotation around level can be.This machine of horizotal one-sided or horizontal commonly,but less USES double configuration of three.In addition,it also has FuSheShi except installation horizontal power components,perpendicular to the drum rebirth in the plane of the turn power components installed.(4)the central pillar machine,the machine has the mesa of larger diameter annular rotary worktable.On the central installation,the installation power components,but also in the workbench around are installed power components,horizontal and fixture is installed in the rotary table,this machine is generally complex.1.2.3 turret spindle box type combination machine toolsTurret spindle box type combination machine tools are divided into two classes:the uniaxial turret head type combination machine tools and multiaxial turret type combination machine tools.The former head of the turret each combination can be installed a rigid surfaces.The latter turret head each combination can be installed a spindle box surface.This machine general configuration types are:(1)turn tower only realize spindle box by cutting movement,the processing components,by the slide realize feed movement,(2)turn tower spindle box installed in turn on the slide spindle box tower,which can realize the cutting and feeding movement.One turret and spindle box type combination machine tools may be composed of three type double or,at the same time,the two or three of workpiece surface processing.130 combination machine tools of technologyCombination machine tools can be accomplished,milling process is flat surface,driving devicees,drilling,reaming,boring,reaming,tapping,deep hole drilling,economic,cutting,etc.Along with the development of integrated automation technology,the combination of complete machine can process is expanding constantly,except in the process,but also can complete car outside the circle,car,car indexing,cutting surface and thread,rolling,YuanZhuMian inside hole cut surface grinding,polishing,peace,and even honing,stamping,welding,and heat treatment,assembling,automatic measurement and check,etc.The development direction of 1.4 combination machine toolsIn recent years,combination machine tools in automobiles,tractors,diesel engine,motor,instruments,sewing machine,bicycle,valves,mining machinery,metallurgy,aviation,textile machinery and military department has won extensive use,some small batch production department also began to promote the use of.China in combination machine tools and the cycle will achieve rapid development,and its development direction for:To improve the level 1.4.1 general partsThe main measure of general component level standard is:variety specification complete,the static and dynamic performance parameters,the technology of advanced high accuracy and precision,provides better.Currently should pay attention to develop strong milling machine,high precision of high-power dynamic slippery 1ta series boring head with high precision,and adaptive sliding and small batch production,the fast speed in power components and supporting components.Mechanical drive power components has stable performance,high reliability,etc.At present,mechanical drive power components used communication frequency conversion variable speed motors and dc servo motor,so as to make mechanical drive power components added new competition ability.Power components with steel rail,using the ball screw,static guide and aero-static bearing,tooth-type belts and other new structure,bearing parts by welding structure,etc.Due to the increase of precision and parts of dynamic and static performance,which is obviously improve the machining precision workpiece surface roughness.1.4.2 increase productivityCurrently combination machine tools and the cycle of increasing productivity,cycle time is generally 1 2 minutes,only 10 30 seconds.The main methods to improve productivity is to improve the machine tool layout,increase and decrease of machining tool,cutting dosages,improve the machining allowance,work to improve the reliability and shorten the assistant time etc.In order to reduce the loss of the cycle of the cycle,parking,electronic computers are flexible management of the cycle.1.4.3 enlarge machining scopeNow combination machine tools and the cycle is completed a general has a few processes of workpieces,and is often used to finish all the processing procedure.Workpiece,Besides finished graphic milling,drilling past,reaming holes,tapping,economic,boring,has now expanded to finish machining,grinding and cutting,fine boring and machining(such as inspection,automatic assembly,cleaning,etc)and the classification of print test procedure.1.4.4 improve the machining accuracyNow in the combination machine tools and the cycle again into a lot of machining processes,such as:1,fine boring hole processing position in 0.02 millimeters.In order to make the cycle can guarantee machining precision,stability and has been widely adopted automatically measuring tools and techniques that are automatically compensated,adjustable knives dont stop.1.4.5 increased automationCurrently combination machine tools and the cycle is developing very rapidly,and more and more combination machine tools for composition,modular machine tool itself is the cycle is the development direction of automatic.Therefore,the key is to solve the workpiece clamp pressure automation and handling automation.1.4.6 improve combination machine tools and automatic lineSmall batch production to improve the productivity of some of the cabinet,in recent years the development process of adjustable knives of combination machine tools and automatic line,they are using digital control program.In the early development of many varieties,grouping processing combination machine tools and automatic line,also created automatically change and change automatic machine,combination of spindle box for small batch production process can be automatically replaced the spindle box on the combination machine tools.Using a tool that can complete the whole process of a workpiece machining,can play the role of a line.Especially the development of digital control program for the development of this kind of machine tools,creating more favourable conditions.1.4.7 researchason super-mini combination machine toolsIn order to adapt to the instrument industry small box processing need,creating super-mini combination machine tools are required.This machine by the hydraulic head more super-mini pneumatic configuration,small size,high efficiency,and can achieve high machining accuracy.1.4.8 developing special combination machine tools and automatic lineAlong with the development of technology,the combination of machine has been used to specific objects designed according to the general,but can be used as varieties of batch production,processing products according to your own user needs,process equipment,tools and machining certain objects can be composed of efficient tool.组合机床的研究与发展组合机床的研究与发展组合机床是由大量的通用部件和少量专用部件组成的工序集中的高效专用机床。它能够对一种(或多种)零件进行多刀、多轴、多面、多工位加工。在组合机床上可以完成钻孔、扩孔、铰孔、镗孔、攻丝、车削、铣削、磨削及滚压等工序,生产效率高,加工精度稳定。组合机床与通用机床、其他专用机床比较,具有以下特点:(1)组合机床上的通用部件和标准零件约占全部机床零、部件总量的 7080%,因此设计和制造的周期短,投资少,经济效果好。(2)由于组合机床采用多刀加工,并且自动化程度高,因而比通用机床生产效率高,产品质量稳定,劳动强度低。(3)组合机床的通用部件是经过周密设计和长期生产实践考验的,又有专门厂成批制造,因此结构稳定、工作可靠,使用和维修方便。(4)在组合机床上加工零件时,由于采用专用夹具、刀具和导向装置等,加工质量靠工艺装备保证,对操作工人的技术水平要求不高。(5)当被加工产品更新时,采用其他类型的专用机床时,其大部部件要报废。用组合机床时,其通用部件和标准零件可以重复利用,不必另行设计和制造。(6)组合机床易于联成组合机床自动线,以适应大规模的生产需要。组合机床虽然有很多优点,但也还有缺点:(1)组合机床的可变性较万能机床低,重新改装时有 10%20%的零件不能重复利用,而且改装时劳动量较大。(2)组合机床的通用部件不是为某一种机床设计的,它是具有较广的适应性。这样,就使组合机床的结构较专用机床稍为复杂些。1.2 组合机床的分类组合机床有大型组合机床与小型组合机床两大类,它们不仅在体积和功率上有大小之别,而且在结构和配置型式等方面也有很大的差异。这里主要说明大型组合机床的配置型式。大型组合机床的配置型式可分为三大类:1.2.1 具有固定式夹具的单工位组合机床这类组合机床夹具和工作台都固定不动。动力滑台实现进给运动,滑台上的动力箱实现切削主运动。根据动力箱和多轴箱的安置方式不同,又可分为以下几种:(1)卧式组合机床(动力箱水平安装);(2)立式组合机床(动力箱垂直安装);(3)倾斜式组合机床(动力箱倾斜安装);(4)复合式组合机床(动力箱具有上述两种以上的安装状态)。1.2.2 具有移动式夹具的(多工位)组合机床这类组合机床的夹具安装在直线移动工作台或回转工作台上,并按照一定的节拍时间作间歇移动或转动,使工位得到转换。这类机床的配置型式,常见的有以下四种。(1)具有移动工作台的机床,这类机床的夹具和工件可作直线往复移动。(2)具有回转工作台的机床,这种机床的夹具和工件可绕垂直轴线回转,在回转工作台上每个工位通常都装有工件。(3)鼓轮式机床,这种机床的夹具和工件可绕水平轴线回转。此种机床一般为卧式单面或卧式双面,而较少采用三面配置。此外也有辐射式的,它除了安装卧式动力部件外,还在垂直于鼓轮回转的平面上安装动力部件。(4)中央立柱式机床,这种机床具有台面直径较大的环形回转工作台。在工作台中央安装立柱,立柱上安装动力部件,而在工作台的周围还安装有卧式动力部件,工件和夹具则安装在回转工作台上,这种机床一般都是复合式的。1.2.3 转塔多轴箱式组合机床转塔多轴箱式组合机床分为两类:单轴转塔动力头式组合机床和多轴转塔头式组合机床。前者转塔头的每个结合面可安装一个刚性主轴。后者转塔头的每个结合面可安装一个多轴箱。这种机床一般配置型式有:(1)转塔式多轴箱只实现切削运动,被加工零件安装在滑台上,由滑台实现进给运动;(2)转塔式多轴箱安装在滑台上,转塔式多轴箱既实现切削主运动又实现进给运动。其中,转塔多轴箱式组合机床可能组成双面式或三面式,同时对工件的两、三个平面进行加工。1.3 组合机床的工艺范围组合机床可完成的工艺有铣平面、刮平面、车端面、钻孔、扩孔、镗孔、铰孔、攻丝、倒锪窝、钻深孔、切槽等。随着综合自动化技术的发展,组合机床可完成的工艺范围也在不断扩大,除了上述工艺外,还可完成车外圆、车锥面、车弧面、切削内外螺纹、滚压孔、拉削内外圆柱面和平面、磨削、抛光、珩磨,甚至还可以进行冲压、焊接、热处理、装配、自动测量和检查等。1.4 组合机床的发展方向近几年组合机床在汽车、拖拉机、柴油机、电机、仪器、缝纫机、自行车、阀门、矿山机械、冶金、航空、纺织机械及军工等部门已获得广泛的使用,一些中小批量生产部门也开始推广使用。我国在组合机床及其自动线上将获得较快的发展,其发展方向为:1.4.1 提高通用部件的水平 衡量通用部件水平的主要标准是:品种规格齐全,动、静态性能参数先进,工艺性好,精度高和精度保持性好。目前应注意开发适应强力铣削的大功率动力滑台,高精度镗削头和高精度滑台,以及适应中、小批生产的快调、速换动力部件和支承部件。机械驱动的动力部件具有性能稳定,工作可靠等优点。目前,机械驱动的动力部件应用了交流变频调速电机和直流伺服电机等,使机械驱动的动力部件增添了新的竞争能力。动力部件采用镶钢导轨、滚珠丝杠、静压导轨、静压轴承、齿形皮带等新结构,支承部件采用焊接结构等。由于提高了部件的精度和动、静态性能,因而使被加工的工件精度明显提高,表面粗糙度减小。1.4.2 提高生产率 目前组合机床及其自动线的生产率不断提高,循环时间一般是 12 分钟,有的只用1030 秒。提高生产率的主要方法是改善机床布局,增加同时加工的刀具,减少加工余量,提高切削用量,提高工作可靠性以及缩短辅助时间等。为了减少自动线的停车损失,提高自动线的柔性,采用电子计算机进行自动线的管理。1.4.3 扩大工艺范围 现在组合机床及其自动线一般已不是完成一个工件的某几道工序,而常常是用于完成工件的全部加工工序。除过去完成平面铣削、钻孔、扩孔、锪孔、攻丝、粗镗孔外,现在已扩大到能完成车削、磨削、拉削、精镗以及非切削加工(如检查、自动装配、清洗、试验以及打印分类等)工序。1.4.4 提高加工精度 现在在组合机床及其自动线上又纳入了很多精加工工序,如进行 1 级精镗,保证孔加工位置度在 0.02 毫米。为了使自动线能稳定地保证加工精度,已广泛采用自动测量和刀具自动补偿技术,保证调刀不停车。1.4.5 提高自动化程度 目前组合机床及其自动线发展十分迅速,越来越多的组合机床用于组成自动线,组合机床本身则是全自动方向发展的。为此,重点是解决工件夹压自动化和装卸自动化。1.4.6 提高组合机床及其自动线的可调性 为了提高中小批生产的一些箱体件的生产率,近几年来发展了可调的多工序多刀具的组合机床及其自动线,它们大多采用数字程序控制。除早期发展的多品种、成组加工的组合机床及其自动线外,还创造了自动换刀和自动更换多轴箱的组合机床,还有用于加工中小批生产箱体零件的可自动更换对多轴箱的组合机床。用一台这样的机床就能完成一种工件的全部工序加工,能起到一条流水线的作用。特别是数字程序控制的发展,为发展这种机床创造了更有利的条件。1.4.7 创制超小型组合机床 为了适应仪器仪表工业小箱体加工需要,创制超小型组合机床是必需的。这种机床多由超小型气动液压头配置而成,体积小,效率高,并能达到高的加工精度。1.4.8 发展专用组合机床及其自动线 随着组合机床技术的发展,过去一直被认为需按具体加工对象专门设计,而是可以作为通用品种进行成批生产的,用户根据自己加工产品的需要,配上刀具及工艺装备,即可组成加工一定对象的高效机床。阅读书目阅读书目1 章宏甲.黄谊主编液压传动M.北京:机械工业出版社.1993 2 大连组合机床研究所编.组合机床设计第一册M北京:机械工业出版社.1975 3 大连组合机床研究所编.组合机床参考图册M.北京:机械工业出版社.19754 彭文生等主编机械设计M华中理工大学出版社.20015 唐增宝等主编机械设计课程设计M华中理工大学出版社.19996沈阳工学院等编.组合机床设计M.上海:上海科学技术出版社.19857 大连组合机床研究所编.组合机床设计第二册M北京:机械工业出版社.1975 8金属切削机床设计.上海:上海科学技术文献出版社M.19869金属切削机床(下册).北京:机械工业出版社M.199010赵大兴等主编.工程图学.湖北科学技术出版社M.200511 左健民主编.液压与气压传动.机械工业出版社M.2002毕业设计论文任务书毕业设计论文任务书系部机械工程系指导教师周国柱职称教授学生姓名林圣镇专业班级06 机制 1学号0615011106论文题目汽车变速箱两端面液压双头组合铣床的设计论文内容目标及进度要求一设计任务内容1.方案设计:拟定两个以上的总体设计方案分析对比并择优2.设计液压组合铣床的三图一卡;3.液压组合铣床的主轴箱总成设计计算(1)传动系统的拟定及其运动计算(2)传动系统的动力计算及校核(3)主轴箱部件装备图设计4.液压组合铣床的液压系统设计计算并绘制液压系统图5.设计主轴零件工作图二设计要求 1.编制本项目的设计计算说明书,不得少于 40 页 2.编写本说明书的英文摘要,不得少于 500 字 3.所设计的图纸不得少于 3 张零号图纸 4.必须以新的国家标准绘图和标注图面内容 5.允许使用计算机绘图,但必须用手工绘制一张图纸三.设计进度 第一周:完成方案设计 第二、三周:完成组合机床的三图一卡 第四、五周:完成主轴箱的设计计算 第六周:完成
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