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  • 686 矿车轮对拆卸机构的设计
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    • 中文摘要.doc
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攀枝花学院毕业设计(论文) 57 英文原文英文原文 New Trends and Problems in Material Processing Machine Design Theory WANG Ai-lun ,DUAN Ji-an ,HUANG Ming-hui , ZHONG Jue (College of Mechanical and thereafter a brief discussion is given. Keywords: interface; extraordinary physical field; procession machine ; function material 1The Time Background of Material Processing Machine In the long span of history of human progress ,many tools ,machines and methods were created and a variety of materials with different properties were processed. Materials and its processing have become one of pillar and driving force of mankind progress. In pace with multi - polar competition in current world and peoples striving perseveringly for happier life ,material function goes beyond unceasingly mens knowledge and imagination ,for example ,cryptic function material ,semiconductor material ,energy material ,vibration - absorptive material , super - strength 攀枝花学院毕业设计(论文) 58 aluminum alloy accounting for 70 percent of application of aeronautics and space ,metal foil of 45m ,deep drawing plate with anisotropy below 1 percent ,electronic aluminum foil with micro - orientation up to 95 percent ,heat resisting aluminum alloy with super strong specific strength used in aeronautics ,space and deep sea ,etc. 1 ,2 Thus several important development trends with distinct time features in material processing domain are shaped up as follows : (1) Creating material processing machine with extraordinary physical field for processing material with special texture structures and functions. For example ,applications of thermal energy and mechanical energy are breaking through unceasingly technology limit ,and some non - tradition energy ,such as microwave ,chemical energy , bioenergy , etc. , are introduced into material processing procedure one after another ,so that some material processing machines with extraordinary energy circumstance are produced. (2) Breaking through traditional physical limits and integrating melting ,solidifying ,plastic deformation and heat treatment to obtain special function of material and cut down expenses3 . For example ,near - net shaping material processing technology , such as fast rolling , spraying deposition ,over - plastic molding , injection molding , high energy beam ,etc ,is applied. (3) Material processing process is forged ahead in the direction of high speed ,heavy - duty and high accuracy online control ,for instance , the rolling speed goes up to 130 ms - 1 ,the deformation pressure rises up to 300 MPa ,accuracy of dimension up to 0.1m ,accuracy of shape up to 0. 1 I ,strength accuracy comes up to 0.1 MPa. For these reasons ,it is necessary for material processing machine design theory to integrate and coalesce ingeniously correlative frontier science and technology to create and produce some new concept material processing machine with following functions. 2Due Functions of New Concept Material Processing Machine (1) To have the ability to produce and bear extraordinary physical 攀枝花学院毕业设计(论文) 59 field and transmit extraordinary energy flow with the aim of providing extraordinary physical circumstances necessary for new concept material processing. For example ,high gradient temperature field with the speed of cool - down of work interface which exceeds 104106 Ks - 1 , line wave and pulse complex exerted in solidifying - deforming area , super - strength contact stress field of material forming interface ,turbulent flow field of molten metal with very big flakiness ratio ,low frequency magnetic field with random frequency ,microwave field for powder metal heating ,ultrasonic field for large volume solidifying ,etc. 4 ,are applied. (2) To have the ability to work in critical state so that high stability and ideal performance of processing machine is ensured under the circumstance of reinforced technological condition and multi - field coupling operation. For example ,chatter suppressing capability of fast ultra - thin rolling under the condition of boundary lubricating state5 ,the capability of self - excited vibration suppressing under the condition of special friction state ,synergism stability and disturbance stability of flexible connecting parallel shaft with multi - driving system ,etc. 4 ,are ensured. (3) To have the ability to accurately control the material processing in order to obtain low loss ,high efficiency and high quality of material processing. For example , super - high accuracy on - line monitor of products form ,on line monitor and on - line adjustment of products texture and properties ,precision coordination control of multi - procedure , on - line monitor of micro - orientation of metal plastic deformation ,etc. 4 ,are ensured. Some products accuracy index may be enumerated as follows : dimensional accuracy coming to 0.1m , microstructure uniformity to crystal lattice ,strength error to 0.1 MPa ,etc. 4 In short ,only by new concept material processing machine with extraordinary function being designed and made , can special function material be processed. 攀枝花学院毕业设计(论文) 60 3 Science Problems and Study Contents of Metal Material Processing Machine Under the Circumstance of Extraordinary Physical Field In view of these facts and background mentioned above ,several new research topics can be advanced as follows. 3. 1 Coupling Heat Transfer Mechanism of Multi - Phase Interface Temperature - Stress Field A brand - new microstructure can be obtained through continuously large deformation and fast solidifying when melting metal is in critical state of liquid solid. At this very moment ,high density heat flow and dynamic heat resistance are present in material processing circumstance6 ,7 . A basic theory problem of designing this kind of machine is to study mechanism of heat transmittance and energy conversion ,and to establish mathematical model . 3. 2 Friction Constraint Mechanism of Plastic Flow Interface of Material Processing Machine The coupling between operation mechanism and workpiece is very complicated because plastic flow is present in processing interface. The interface state , determined by velocity , load thermodynamic process , elasticity of operation mechanism ,plasticity of workpiece ,dynamic behaviour of interface sticking - sliding and partial hydrodynamic lubrication ,etc ,affect and form friction constraints mechanism peculiar to material processing machine ,because these constraints present strong non - linearity ;and under certain circumstances ,the constraints may be destroyed or mismatched instantaneously and thus dynamic instability is resulted in. Thus following problems can be put forward : Mechanism of“spectre chatter”arose from sticking - sliding friction and partial hydrodynamic lubrication in rolling interface , instability condition and mechanism of constraint between smooth surface and rotating body under the circumstance of high speed ,heavy - duty and boundary lubrication , Lubrication film absorption mechanism and physical chemistry behaviour 攀枝花学院毕业设计(论文) 61 of interface of unceasingly regenerative surface ,the relationship between rheological characteristic and machine operation parameters. 3. 3 Multi - Body Non - Linear Contact Mechanism Under the Condition of Extra - High Pressure Field To build the super strength pressure field on large area is one of basic function of material processing machine , and it is also necessary to form by once large - size structure element (such as spacecraft , intercontinental vehicles ,car and large - scale aeroplane etc) . The ability to build super strong pressure field is one of important feature and the base of independent national defense. Under the circumstance of super strength pressure field ,multi - body strong nonhertz contact and non - linear friction will be produced ,thus local permanent deformation and degrading of element accuracy may be led. New theory foundation of design of machine with super strength pressure field will be furnished through study of multi - body strong non - hertz contact mechanism , multi - body non - linear friction mechanism (such as providing force - displacement mixed solving process of three - dimension multi - body) . 3. 4 Load Distribution Law in Multi - Sliding Pair With Structure Bias Load With regard to statically indeterminate structure ,load distribution of constraint point is determined by deformation compatibility condition. However ,concerning some plane large - size statically indeterminate structure with sliding degree of freedom in third dimension ,load distribution can not be determined by deformation compatibility condition. Thus new theory basis will be provided by analyzing of contact behaviour and mechanism of sliding pair (such as creep ,force of friction ,integral deformation compatibility condition ,etc) . 3. 5 Coupling Mechanism and Stability of Multi - Physical Fields in Material Processing Systems In the wake of system function becoming more and more diversified , conventional technology limits in material processing machine is being 攀枝花学院毕业设计(论文) 62 broke through unceasingly ,system structure also becomes increasingly complicated ,and system performance becomes increasingly multi - causal . For example ,any instantaneous state of roller in fast rolling mills is affected by elastic deformation ,plastic flow ,heat transfer process , hydro - dynamic lubrication process ,interface physical chemistry molecular state and so on5 . In addition ,electromechanical coupling in processing system have already gone beyond conventional concept ,for instance ,some singular point phenomenon (such as micro - variable can be transformed into macro - variable) ,are present ,thus roller operation instability may be led by perturbation8 . Therefore ,this subject will study the interaction mechanism of multi - physical field and the influence on processing system stability and processing material quality started with analysis of micro - state of executive body. 3. 6 Multi - Technology Integration and Coalescence of Accurate Control The material processing machine ,which operate under the circumstance of extraordinary physical field ,is a complicated large - scale system ,and some parameters of the system vary on feasible field boundary ;thereby ,to keep under accurate control and adjustment of multi field circumstance ,multi - dimension coordination ,multi - energy conversion , multi - level information transfer ,interface multi - process coupling ,etc. is of much significance. Since a variety of multi - interaction exists in control model ,it is necessary to establish integration framework of coordination work according to decoupling of control model ,so as to accurate control based on the multi - technology integration and coalescence is realized. 3. 7 Quasi - Reality Design and Concurrent Design Based on Knowledge Innovation Systems Digitalization and visualization of material processing technology will promote immediately the quality of design, operation and control . Therefore optimization of material processing technology and material processing machine by means of realization of virtual simulation of 攀枝花学院毕业设计(论文) 63 processing procedure through quasi - reality design and concurrent design is one of our pressing study subjects. 3. 8 Mechanical Behavior of Special Function Materials in the Extraordinary Physical Field Many key elements and parts in material processing machine are often under the circumstance of super strong force field ,temperature field ,electronic magnetic field and flow field ,and must have the functions of constructing special physical interface. However ,it is difficult for common single - substance material such as metal ,ceramic polymer ,etc. to have both high index of single property and excellent overall quality. Therefore we need to use certain material with new functions for key position9 ,for instance ,multi - dimension function gradient material with ultrahigh physical property ,multi - dimension function gradient material with intelligence. For these reasons ,it is necessary to study basic law and mechanism of these kind of function material mentioned above ,for instance ,stress (strain) distribution function ,failure mechanism and design criteria of material under the circumstance of extraordinary physical field ,static (dynamic) stiffness and damping ,digitalization design and visualization design of processing system made of gradient function material ,etc ,so that the general mechanics law of element which is under the circumstance of extraordinary physical field and made of anisotropy multi - dimension gradient function material is obtained. Nowadays ,material processing science and technology is forging rapidly ahead. A forward - looking study aiming at key technology problem of material processing machine will provide theory and technology reserve for manufacturing science and industry of 21st century. 攀枝花学院毕业设计(论文) 64 英文翻译英文翻译 材料制备机械设计理论中的新趋势和新问题材料制备机械设计理论中的新趋势和新问题 王艾伦,段吉安,黄明辉,钟 掘 (中南大学机电工程学院,湖南长沙 410083) 摘摘 要要:在全面综述材料制备机械技术及设备发展动态的基础上,提出了研究 领域的几个新问题和发展方向,如通过集成和融合现代相关前沿科学和技术,生 产具有超常和特殊性能的新概念材料等,并进行了简要分析和讨论. 关键词关键词:界面;超常物理场;制备机械;功能材料 1机械材料加工的时代背景机械材料加工的时代背景 在人类进步的一段长时间范围内,许多工具、机械和方法被提出来;不同 的原料用不同的工具来加工。原料及其处理过程已经变成了推动人类进步不可 缺的一部份。在当前世界中日益激烈的竞争和人们追求幸福生活的今天,物质 的功能已经远远超出了人类现有的并不断增长的知识及想象。例如:神秘原料 功能,半导体材料,原料能量有吸力的材料,在航空领域中占有70%份额的强 力铝合金45um的薄金属片,用各向异性深冲压金属板在1%以下;电子铝箔与 强耐热铝合金已经被应用到航空、宇宙及深海领域中,等等;在原料加工加工 领域中不同的时间段里,材料重要发展趋势就这样形成了: (1)在特殊的物理领域里制造原料加工机械,是为了能有特殊的质地结构 和辅助性的加工功能。例如:运用热能和机械能能够突破科学技术的极限,将 一些不常用的能量,例如:微波、化学能、生物能等等,一个接一个的被引入 到材料加工中来,因此一些加工特殊能量原材料的加工设备就被制造出来了。 (2)突破传统的物质限制,将溶化、凝固、造型一体化,然后加热得到具 有特殊功能的原料,这样就可以降低加工费用。例如:材料加工整形技术,比 如像快速翻滚,喷雾处理、塑胶成型、喷射造型法、高能量射束等等被应用。 (3)原料加工处理正在向高速、重载和高精度在线控制方向上迈进。例如: 轧制速度达到130m/s,压力变形已达到300MPa,尺寸精度达到了0.1um,成型 精度已达到0.1i;浓度精度已达到0.1MPa。由于这些原因,原料加工机械设备 设计理论将科学与技术相关联的领域有机的结合起来设计生产一中新概念材料 加工设备是可能的。 攀枝花学院毕业设计(论文) 65 2对于新概念材料加工设备的期望功能对于新概念材料加工设备的期望功能 (1)要有能力生产具有特殊物质的领域;能传送那些对于新概念材料加工 在特定的物质环境下是非常必要的特殊能流。例如:在高温环境下能使那些高 温波或者脉冲以超过104106K/s的速度冷却下来;将外表面的凝固、变形合成 一体,然后在将超强接触面应力重新组合成新的分界面;融化的大金属薄片的 湍流;随机的低频率磁场用于金属末加热的微波、用于大量凝固的超声波等等 都已经被应用了。 (2)有能力在临界状态下工作,因此高稳定性和理想性能的处理设备是在 加强技术条件和室外操作的保证。例如:禁止在润滑状态下边界上的摇晃;在 特有的摩擦状态下的抗震能力;有韧性的连接管的合力稳定性和干扰稳定性与 轴相比更易驱动系统。 (3)有能力精确的控制原料加工而获得低损耗、高功率、高性能的原料加 工。例如:精确的在线监测产品成型;在线监测和在线调整产品品质和器具还 有在线控制金属、塑胶成型的程序。产品的精确度指数可以列举如下:宏观上 精确度可达到0.1um,微观上的晶状体结构非常均匀,浓度误差在0.1MPa 。简 而言之,拥有特别功能的新概念原料加工设备应该被设计和生产出来。这样的 话,那些特别性能的原料就能被处理加工了。 3在特殊的物理领域和环境下金属材料加工设备的问题和需要学习在特殊的物理领域和环境下金属材料加工设备的问题和需要学习 的内容的内容 由于这些原因和以上提到的背景,如下的一些新的研究主题应该被改进: 3.1 连接传热装置和温度应力场的相界面连接传热装置和温度应力场的相界面 当融化金属处于液体和固体的临界状态时通过连续的变形和快速凝固,一 种全新的微观结构可以被获得。在这个非常时刻,高浓度的热流和动态的热阻 力在材料加工处理中成了主要事项。关于设计这个设备的基本理论问题是要学 习核心传动系统合能量转化和建立数学模型。 3.2 材料加工设备表面粘流摩擦力的抑制材料加工设备表面粘流摩擦力的抑制 操作装置和工件的连接是相当复杂的因为粘流阻挡了加工表面界面态由周 转速度、热力学处理工作量、操作装置的弹性、工件的可塑性、滑性界面的动 态行为、局部水力的润滑油等等来决定。它们影响着材料加工设备抗摩擦装置 的成型。因为它们会会强制其产生很大的非线性,这种强制会在瞬间被损坏或 者是失谐,最后会导致动态不稳定性。因此提出了以下的问题:机械装置的噪 声可能在晃动的界面引起滑动摩擦、不稳定状态;在高速、重载和边界润滑状 攀枝花学院毕业设计(论文) 66 态下在光滑表面和旋转式喷灌器之间的装置抑制。润滑油薄膜吸收装置和不断 再



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