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Published by: AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION, Inc. One East Wacker Drive, Suite 3100, Chicago, IL 60601 Guide to Design Criteria for Bolted and Riveted Joints Second Edition Geoffrey L. Kulak John W. Fisher John H. A. Struik Published by: AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION, Inc. One East Wacker Drive, Suite 3100, Chicago, IL 60601 Copyright (2001) by the Research Council on Structural Connections. All rights reserved. Original copyright (1987) by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. transferred to RCSC. Reproduction or translation of any part of this work beyond that permitted by Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Requests for permission or further information should be addressed to RCSC c/o AISC, One East Wacker Drive, Suite 3100, Chicago, IL 60601. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data: Fisher, John W., 193 1Guide to design criteria for bolted and riveted joints. “A Wiley-lnterscience publication.” Bibliography: p. Includes index. 1. Bolted joints. 2. Riveted joints. I. Kulak, Geoffrey. II. Struik, John H. A., 1942- III. Title. TA492.B63F56 1987671.5 86-22390 ISBN 0-471-83791-1 (for Wiley copyright) ISBN 1-56424-075-4 (for RCSC copyright) Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 Foreword Since the first edition of this book was published in 1974, numerous international studies on the strength and performance of bolted connections have been conducted. Ln the same period, the Research Council on Structural Connections has developed two new specifications for structural joints using ASTM A325 or A490 bolts, one based on allowable stress principles and the other on a load factor and resistance design philosophy. In addition, the Research Council has approved and published “A Test Method to Determine the Slip Coefficient for Coatings used in Bolted Joints.” This second, updated, edition has been prepared and approved by the Research Council. Formed in 1947 and formerly known as the Research Council on Riveted and Bolted Structural Connections, the Research Council on Structural Connections is a nonprofit technical body composed of consulting engineers, educational institutions trade associations and government agencies, and individual members. Its membership is classified according to interest either as producers, users, or general interest, and its purpose is to promote technical information and the knowledge of economical, efficient and safe practices related to the design and installation of bolted structural connections. The Research Council’s Specifications have been endorsed by the Industrial Fasteners Institute and endorsed and published by the American Institute of Steel Construction, and they form the basis of the technical requirements of other national standards. Research Council on Structural Connections Preface The impetus for the preparation of a second edition of the Guide to Design Criteria for Bolted and Riveted Joints has been the enthusiastic reception of the original version and the continued citation for over a decade of that book as a source of information regarding the design of bolted connections. There certainly has been no other single reference in this area that has been so accepted by designers, teachers, students, and specification writers. Of course, a great deal of research into the behavior of bolted connections has been conducted since the publication of the original Guide. Indeed, that publication itself identified areas of concern and areas in which information was lacking, and it thereby stimulated research. The success of the original Guide and the amount of significant research that has been done since its publication indicated that a revised and updated version was desirable. The authors are grateful to the Research Council on Structural Connections for supporting the preparation Of a second edition and for underwriting the costs involved. Many council members offered suggestions, and the efforts of the council were coordinated by M. I. Gilmor of the Canadian Institute of Steel Construction. Geoffrey Kulak also particularly wishes to express thanks to Professor J. -C. Badoux, Director of ICOM (Institute de la Construction Mdtallique) at École Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne in Switzerland. The majority of the revisions contained in the second edition were prepared while that author was a visiting professor at the Institute. Readers of the original Guide will find that the second edition follows the same framework. After introductory chapters treating the historical background of high-strength bolts and rivets, the behavior of individual fasteners is introduced. This is followed by descriptions of the behavior of fasteners in the various types of connections that are encountered in structural engineering practice. Throughout the book, new data have been used to update the information originally presented or to present thoughts in areas that were not covered at all in the earlier edition. There has been a great deal of new work for the authors to draw on. For example, there have been significant improvements in our knowledge of the behavior of slip-resistance connections, fatigue of bolted and riveted connections, beam-to-column connections, and so on. The authors are grateful to researchers throughout the world who have shared their results so willingly. GEOFFREY L. KULAK JOHN W. FISHER H. A. STRUIK Edmonton, Alberta, Canada Bethlehem, Pennsylvania January 1987 vii Preface to First Edition This book provides a state-of-the-art summary of the experimental and theoretical studies undertaken to provide an understanding of the behavior and strength of riveted and bolted structural joints. Design criteria have been developed on the basis of this information and should be beneficial to designers, teachers, students, and specification-writing bodies. The book is intended to provide a comprehensive source of information on bolted and riveted structural joints as well as an explanation of their behavior under various load conditions. Design recommendations are provided for both allowable stress design and load factor design. In both cases, major consideration is given to the fundamental behavior of the joint and its ultimate capacity. The work on this manuscript was carried out at Fritz Engineering Laboratory, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pa. The Research Council on Riveted and Bolted Structural Joints sponsored the project from its inception in 1969. The work has been guided by the Councils Committee on Specifications under the chairmanship of Dr. Theodore R. Higgins. Other members of the committee include: R. S. Belford, E. Chesson, Jr., M. F. Godfrey, F. E. Graves, R. M. Harris, H. A. Krentz, F. R. Ling, W. H. Munse, W. Pressler, E. J. Ruble, J. L. Rumpf, T. W. Spilman, F. Stahl, and W. M. Thatcher. The authors are grateful for the advice and guidance provided by the committee. Many helpful suggestions were made during the preparation of the manuscript. Sincere appreciation is also due the Research Council on Riveted and Bolted Structural Joints and Lehigh University for supporting this work. A book of this magnitude would not have been possible without the assistance of the many organizations who have sponsored research on riveted and bolted structural joints at Fritz Engineering Laboratory. Much of the research on the behavior of riveted and bolted structural joints that was conducted at Fritz Engineering Laboratory provided background for this study and was drawn on extensively. Those sponsoring this work include the American Institute of Steel Construction, the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation, the Research Council on Riveted and Bolted Structural Joints, the United States Department of Transportation-Federal Highway Administration, and the Louisiana Department of Transportation. The authors are particularly grateful for the advice provided by Dr. Theodore R. Higgins and Dr. Geoffrey L. Kulak. Many helpful suggestions were provided that greatly improved the manuscript and design recommendations. ix x Preface to First Edition The manuscript was typed by Mrs. Charlotte Yost, and her assistance with the many phases of the preparation of the manuscript is appreciated. Acknowledgment is also due Mary Ann Yost for her assistance with the preparation of the various indexes provided in this book and other resource material. Many organizations have given permission to reproduce graphs, tables, and photographs. This permission is appreciated and credit is given at the appropriate place. JOHN W. FISHER JOHN H. A. STRUIK Bethlehem, Pennsylvania July 1973 Contents 1. Introduction 1 1.1 Purpose and Scope, 1 1.2 Historical Notes, 1 1.3 Types and Mechanical Properties of Structural Fasteners, 3 2. General Provisions 9 2.1 Structural Steels, 9 2.2 Types of Connections, 12 2.3 Loads, 16 2.4 Factor of Safety—Load Factor Design, 17 2.5 Bolted and Riveted Shear Splices, 18 2.6 Fatigue, 20 2.7 Fracture, 22 3. Rivets 27 3.1 Rivet Types, 27 3.2 Installation of Rivets, 27 3.3 Behavior of Individual Fasteners, 29 3.3.1 Rivets Subjected to Tension, 29 3.3.2 Rivets Subjected to Shear, 30 3.3.3 Rivets Subjected to Combined Tension and Shear, 31 3.4 Basis for Design Recommendations, 33 3.4.1 Rivets Subjected to Tension, 33 3.4.2 Rivets Subjected to Shear, 33 3.4.3 Rivets Subjected to Combined Tension and Shear, 33 xi Introduction to theDesign and Behaviorof Bolted JointsNon-Gasketed JointsFourth EditionBickford/Introduction to the Design and Behavior of Bolted Joints 8176_C000 Final Proof page i 27.7.2007 9:35pm Compositor Name: VBalamugundanMECHANICAL ENGINEERINGA Series of Textbooks and Reference BooksFounding EditorL. L. FaulknerColumbus Division, Battelle Memorial Instituteand Department of Mechanical EngineeringThe Ohio State UniversityColumbus, Ohio1. Spring Designer’s Handbook, Harold Carlson2. Computer-Aided Graphics and Design, Daniel L. Ryan3. Lubrication Fundamentals, J. George Wills4. 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