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    experimental study on multi-stage deep drawing for rectangular cup with high aspect ratio.pdf

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    experimental study on multi-stage deep drawing for rectangular cup with high aspect ratio.pdf

    ORIGINAL ARTICLEExperimental study on multi-stage deep drawingfor rectangular cup with high aspect ratioBeom-Soo Kang however, the use of the drawing ratio is improper toapply to the rectangular deep drawing process, because therectangular cup has the non-axisymmetric shape with thenarrow width and the high aspect ratio. To overcome thisproblem, the equivalent drawing ratio, using the equivalentblank diameter and its area by considering the contact areabetween the punch and the intermediate blank at eachoperation, is reasonable. Furthermore, the process designdepends on the workpiece material, the contact conditionsof the tool–workpiece interfaces, the mechanics of plasticdeformation, and the equipment used. The equipment andthe tooling parameters, which affect the success or failureof the deep drawing operation, are the corner radii, theclearance of the punch and the lower die, the press speed,the lubrication condition, and the type of restraint to themetal flow such as blank holding force [8–10].In terms of tool fabrication and development, severalresearches on the sheet metal deep drawing process with thevarious rectangular cups [1, 3–6] have been performed.Since the deformation mechanism is very complicated, themechanical properties for the final product are difficult topredict, and many process parameters should be considered;the process design is not easy for the fabrication of thesound product to the desired shape. In order to carry out theexperimental investigations for the rectangular deep-drawncup, the multi-stage deep drawing technology, employing aprogressive press without any interruptions to accommo-date additional processing, is commonly adopted to bemanufactured by that cup, because this progressive multi-stage deep drawing is suitable with regard to productivityand cost saving [3–5]. On the process parameters of themulti-stage deep drawing for the rectangular cup, the mainprocess parameters, such as the corner radii of the formingpunch and the lower die, the intake angle, and the ironingratio, have been considered to achieve the successful deepdrawing by employing the explicit finite element analysisand the re-analysis as the prior study [1].In this present study, to ensure and verify the numericalresults on the process parameters from the prior study [1],the experimental investigation on the rectangular cup usedfor the container of Ni-MH nickel–metal hydride batterywas performed. For the experimental study, the detailedprocess design and the tool design were also achieved, andthe tools such as the punch and the lower die from stage 1to stage 5 were fabricated, respectively. During the multi-stage deep drawing experiment, the typical failure causedby the excessive concentration of the metal flow and thetearing was observed, but it was overcome through theslight compensation to smoothen the intake slope at eachcorner surface region of the lower die where the major axisand the minor axis met. Experimentally, the intermediateblanks without any failures could be obtained at each stage.In addition, the thickness distributions on the major axisand the minor axis of each intermediate blank weremeasured and compared with those of the numericalanalysis results. As the results of the comparative study,the experimental results showed actually good agreementwith the required thickness distribution and the deformedconfigurations compared with those by the analytic results[1]. Finally, it was confirmed that the rectangular cup withthe aspect ratio about 5.77 could be obtained by theexperiment without the critical failures.2 Tool design for experimental study2.1 Consideration of biaxial formingThe biaxial forming scheme for the symmetric andaxisymmetric drawing cups, such as the circular, theelliptic, and the square shapes, is often employed to achieveuniform deformation of the intermediate blank by derivinguniform contact between the lower die and the intermediateblank on the major axis and the minor axis. Additionally,the simultaneous contact condition by using the biaxialforming scheme has been applied in case of deep drawingratio height/width of about 10, as summarized in Table 1.However, in case of the rectangular deep drawing process,if the intermediate blank is simultaneously contacted on themajor axis and the minor axis of the lower die, the metalflow from the major axis and the minor axis tends toconcentrate at the edge corner region, and this concentra-tion of the metal flow caused serious failures such astearing, wrinkling, and earing of the intermediate blanks.Therefore, the biaxial forming scheme for the rectangulardeep drawing has to be sequential contacted, unlike those ofthe circular and the square cups drawing. Based on thisconsideration for the biaxial forming, the deep drawingRef. no. Final dimensionheightlengthwidthAspect ratiolength/widthDrawing ratioheight/widthContact condition1 39.3085.9014.90 5.77 2.64 Sequential contact3 63.4029.555.95 4.97 10.66 Simultaneous contact4 48.4533.604.95 6.79 9.79 Simultaneous contactTable 1 Contact condition alongthe major axis and minor axisbetween intermediate blank andlower die in biaxial formingprocess according to drawingratio and aspect ratiounit millimeters132 Int J Adv Manuf Technol 2011 53131–143process including the ironing for the intermediate blanks onthe major axis is performed, and then the basic metal flowis derived. Thereafter, the additional metal flow by thedrawing and the ironing processes on the minor axis isinduced. Through this biaxial forming scheme, the uniformdeformation of the intermediate blanks could be achieved.It means that the multi-stage deep drawing process for therectangular cup could be successfully carried out bycontrolling the order of the contact and deriving thesequential contact according to the required cup shape.2.2 Process designIn the experiment, the final dimensions of the requiredrectangular deep-drawn cup were the height of 39.3 mm,the width of 14.9 mm, and the length of 85.9 mm,respectively, and then the thickness of each sidewall wasdifferently designed as 0.34 and 0.36 mm along thedirections of the minor axis and the major axis. Thematerial used was cold-rolled low carbon thin steel sheetwith the initial thickness of 0.4 mm, and the materialproperties were summarized in Table 2. The aspect ratio ofthe rectangular deep-drawn cup, which is defined as L/Wlength/width, was about 5.77. From the consideration forthe final configuration in this study, it was desirable toadopt the multi-stage deep drawing process with severaltool sets for obtaining the final configuration. In the multi-stage deep drawing process of this study, the process designwas a critical procedure to describe the deformationhysteresis of the intermediate blanks, to determine theshapes, their dimensional information of the intermediateblank, and the deep drawing punch and the lower die ateach forming operation. Generally, the multi-stage deepdrawing process with the high aspect ratio can obtain thenumber of the required deep drawing operation as per eachvalue of “1” of the aspect ratio. Therefore, the number ofthe deep drawing operation was determined as five stages inthis study.Figure 1 shows the results of the process design for therectangular deep-drawn cup and includes the importantinformation such as the deep drawing punch and the lowerdie profiles, the cross-sectioned shape at each deep drawingstage, and the initial blank configuration, and then theinitial blank as shown in Fig. 1a was designed by theelliptic blank profiles of three circular arcs on the directionsof the major axis with the radius of 68.05 mm, on the minoraxis with the radius of 54.81 mm, and the additional arc of67.62 mm, respectively. It is possible to explain theprocedure of this process with the results of the processdesign. In stage 1, the initial blank was made by theblanking punch and the blank holder; thereafter, the deepdrawing process was performed on the major axis and theminor axis. In stage 2, the deep drawing on the major axisand the ironing on the minor axis were carried out by usingthe fully drawn cup from stage 1. In stage 3, the ironingprocess including the drawing was simultaneously per-formed on the major axis and the minor axis using the fullydrawn cup at stage 2, and in stage 4 and stage 5, the deepdrawing on the major axis and the ironing and the drawingon the minor axis were achieved by using the fully drawncup from the previous stage, respectively.2.3 Tool designUsing the punch and the lower die profiles and the cross-sectional shapes from stage 1 to stage 5 as shown in Fig. 1,it was possible to achieve the detailed tool design for eachdeep drawing stage. Figure 2 shows the design results ofthe lower die for each deep drawing process. These designresults of the lower dies from stage 1 to stage 5 werederived from the results of the process design containingthe punch and the lower die profiles as shown in Fig. 1.Additionally, it was able to predict the deformationprocedures of the intermediate blanks according to thecross-sectional shapes within the lower die profiles. Asshown in Fig. 2, the top view, the front view, and theside view serve the shape information such as the cross-sectional configuration, the width, the length, and thecorner radii of the forming punch at each forming stage,respectively. In Fig. 2, the design parameters such as theironing and the intake angle on the minor axis are includedat each front view, and the mentioned parameters on themajor axis are also shown in each side view. Furthermore,the shape variations for the intermediate blanks on themajor axis and the minor axis at each operation stage wereconsidered, and the ironing process and the drawingprocess were also included, simultaneously. By thesedesign procedures, with the considerations of the deforma-tion hysteresis of each intermediate blank and the ironingratio between the major axis and the minor axis, the deepdrawing punches in each stage could be also designed andfabricated.In this study, the intermediate blank is sequentialcontacted to the lower die surface on the major axis andYoungsmodulus GPaYield strengthMPaUltimatestrength MPaPoisons ratio Densitykg/mm3Elongationat break 207 152 268 0.28 7.8310−630∼36Table 2 Mechanical propertiesof cold-rolled low carbon thinsteel sheetInt J Adv Manuf Technol 2011 53131–143 133performed the ironing and the main drawing processes.Thereafter, the blanks are contacted on the minor axisbecause the intermediate blank has the non-axisymmetricconfiguration. For the rectangular deep drawing, the intakeangle is also an important process parameter with respect toformability. In this study, θMindicates the intake angle ofthe major axis, and θmmeans that of the minor axis asshown in Fig. 2a. The multi-stage deep drawing processesfor the drawing and the ironing processes from stage 1 tostage 5 were summarized in Table 3;itshowsthecombinations of the ironing and the drawing operationand the intake angle for this multi-stage deep drawingprocess.3 Experimental approach3.1 ToolingBased on the results of the process design and the tooldesign for the multi-stage deep drawing operation and thoseapplications in this study, the tool fabrications for thepunches and the lower dies from stage 1 to stage 5 wereperformed. Figure 3 shows the prototypes of the lower diesfrom stage 1 to stage 5, respectively. As shown in Fig. 3,the lower die for stage 1 was used to carry out the drawingprocess, and the lower dies from stage 2 to stage 5 wereapplied to the drawing and the sidewall ironing of theintermediate blanks. Furthermore, Fig. 4 shows the formingpunches from stage 1 to stage 5. Additionally, Fig. 4 noticesthe enlarged end parts of the punches to verify the punchcorner radii and the corner shape.3.2 Application to multi-stage deep drawing processFigure 5 shows the example of the experimental proceduresof the multi-stage deep drawing process at stage 3 using thefully drawn intermediate blank of stage 2. In the first trialfrom stage 1 to stage 5 by using the developed tool sets inthis study, a series of the serious visible failures wasinvestigated. Figure 6a shows the examples of the tearingfailure by the thickening effects due to the excessiveconcentration of the metal flow. According to the occur-rence of the mentioned failures, a close examination usingX-ray CT apparatus was performed, and then an invisiblelocal failure was also detected as shown in Fig. 6b. Thevisible failure type was mainly the tearing phenomena, andthe invisible failure was due to the overlapping of theworkpiece by the local concentration of the metal flowduring the deep drawing and the ironing operation,respectively. The cause of these failures was that theroughness of the intake surface of the lower die was locallya Stage 1 b Stage 2 c Stage 3 d Stage 4 e Stage 5Fig. 1 Process design and tool layout for multi-stage deep drawing from stage 1 to stage 5134 Int J Adv Manuf Technol 2011 53131–143coarse, where the round-curved intake surface meets theironing surface. In order to solve these problems, theprotuberance at the intersection between the intake surfaceand the ironing surface on the lower dies was improvedsmoothly by abrading and grinding that surface, and thenthe successful experiments could be performed without anyfailures.From the results of overcoming those failures, Fig. 7ashows the prototypes by the experimental works using themulti-stage deep drawing process from stage 1 to stage 5.Figure 7b notices the overall deformed configurations asthe simulated result [1]. In the numerical simulations asshown in Fig. 7b, the initial blank was modeled as theeight-node brick element with two layers at the thicknessdirection, and then the initial blank was constructedwith 14,793 nodes and 12,000 elements for one quarterof the full model. Each finite element model consisted ofthe drawing punch, the intermediate blank, the die, andthe knockout device from stage 2 to stage 5, with theexception that stage 1 used the blank holder instead of theknockout device. In the finite element model, the punch,the blank holder, the lower die, and the knockout devicewere assumed to be perfectly rigid, and modeled by four-node rigid shell element. Also, the friction coefficient atthe interface between the blank, the punch, and the diewas assumed to be 0.1. The blank holding force of 500 Nwas applied in stage 1 and removed thereafter. Further-more, the time scaling factor was taken as 200, that is, theStage no. Major axis Minor axis Intake angle degreeMajor axis θM Minor axis θm1 Drawing Drawing ––2 Drawing Drawingironing 17.1 20.53 Drawingironing Drawingironing 17.2 21.14 Drawing Drawingironing 19.7 21.25 Drawing Drawingironing 18.0 21.2Table 3 Summary of multi-stage deep drawing procedurea Concept b

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